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Exempli gratiā, 'for example', is usually abbreviated "e.g." (less commonly, ex. gr.). The abbreviation is often read aloud in English as "for example" (see citation signal and compare how the ampersand is read as "and"), though it is also often applied as a substitute for similar phrases, like "such as" and "including". The abbreviation may be followed by a comma or not, depending on the style of the writer. The comma is more apt to be dropped before a simple expression with no punctuation of its own, and is more likely to be retained for multiple items.[28] A colon can also be used,[29] especially before a long or complex list. E.g. is often confused with i.e. (id est, 'that is', 'in other words').[30] Some writing styles give such abbreviations without punctuation, as ie and eg.[a]

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